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    淺析醫學英語中結構分隔現象的翻譯
    編輯:北京譯海騰飛翻譯公司   發布時間:2018-06-07

    淺析醫學英語中結構分隔現象的翻譯

    作者:張林 陳續躍

     

    醫學英語中同一成分內有關部分或不同成分間,在一般情況下是挨得很緊的。但在某種情況下卻被拆開了。這種“拆開”現象被稱之為“分隔”。它有時會給理解句子造成困難,在翻譯過程中很有重視這一現象的必要。下面從兩方面來闡述這一現象。

     

        1.    成分內分隔

        1.1     謂語內的分隔  A:助動詞或情態動詞與實意動詞之間被狀語、同位語、插入語等分隔。翻譯時,絕大多數位置不變,但也有前譯的時候。For example: When he returned home last week, the jaundice had practically faded.他上周回家時,黃疸實際上已經消失。Molecules must themselves be almost incompressible.分子本身幾乎不可壓縮。If, therefore, it were possible to connect the eye with the temporal lobe, and the ear with the occipital lobe, we would, as someone has expressed it, hear the lightening and see the thunder.”因此,假設我們有可能將眼與顳葉連接起來,將耳與枕葉連接起來的話,那么,我們就會像有人說的那樣,先聽到閃電,后看到雷鳴”。B:被自身一部分分隔的現象。翻譯時,位置不變。For example: The term has been, and still is, used in different senses by different writers.這個術語一向而且仍然被不同作者用于不同的概念。

        1.2   非謂語動詞短語內的分隔  分詞獨立主格結構中的邏輯主語與分詞有時被其他成分分隔。翻譯時,位置不變。For example: The ventricles expel blood, and their walls are thick and strong, the wall of the left ventricle, which drives blood through most of the body, being nearly three times as thick as that of the right, which drives the blood only through the lungs.心室可以把血排出,其壁厚而結實,由于左心室要把血液輸送到全身,而右心室只把血液輸送到肺部,所以左心室壁的厚度將近右心室壁的三倍。A:不定式動詞符號to與動詞分隔而形成“分裂不定式”。翻譯時位置不變。For example: Pressure is believed to considerably raise the boiling point of a liquid.相信壓力頗能升高液體的沸點。B:其他分隔現象,翻譯時位置同樣不變。For example: He remembered to have once carried out that test at ordinary temperature.他記得曾一度在常溫下進行過那種試驗。Palpation is the act of examining an underlying organ by feeling with any part of the hand the overlying surface and is usually the second step in a physical examination.觸診就是用手的任何部分接觸表皮來檢查體內器官的手段,通常是體格檢查的第二步驟。The veil wrapped in mystery the secret of the creation and growth and structure of organisms was thrust aside.蒙住在機體的發生,生長和構造這一秘密的神秘面紗被揭開了。

        1.3   介詞短語中的分隔  介詞及其賓語被有關對象分隔。翻譯位置基本保持不變,但要充分考慮介詞短語的中文表達。For example: The heart serves as a two-cylinder pump situated between and connecting the two systems.心臟是處于這兩個循環之間并連接這兩個循環的雙圓柱血泵。Saturated steam is that which is in the presence of, and at the same temperature as the water from which it was evaporated.飽和蒸汽是同蒸發它的水同時存在并具有與蒸發它的水同樣溫度的蒸汽。

        1.4   搭配結構中的分隔  翻譯時有些搭配結構常緊挨一起用于句中。但有時卻被其他成分分隔而不易看出,翻譯時位置不變。The procedures of disinfection are varied and depend to a great degree upon the biologic characteristics of the organisms.消毒的方法是多種多樣的,它在很大程度上取決于要殺滅的微生物的生物學特性。Increased sodium excretion following saline infusions was due, at least in part, to a diminution of tubular reabsorption.鹽水從靜脈輸入后,排出量增加,至少部分地是由于腎小管重吸收的減少。In order to become available for use by the cells, food must be changed into simpler forms and they must be changed to liquids.要使食物變得能為細胞所利用,食物必須變成較簡單的形式,而且必須變成液態。The chief action of these rays is to bring about the conversion of steroids which are normally present in the skin into vitamin D.這些射線的主要作用是使正常含于皮膚內的類固醇轉化為維生素D。有些搭配結構本身是分隔性的,但有時被分隔得很遠。For example: One must be careful not to confuse blood that has been swallowed from mouth or nose with that really coming from the bleeding into the stomach.應注意不要把從口腔或鼻腔咽下去的血液同真正的胃出血混淆起來。

        2.    成分間的間隔

        2.1   主謂之間的分隔  主語和謂語一般是相連的,但有時因為插進其他成分而被分隔,翻譯時要根據插入成分的功能進行翻譯。A:主語與謂語被后置的定語分隔。For example: Foods deficient in iron are unfit for patients with anemia.缺鐵的食物對貧血病人是不適宜的。The time it takes for the blood of human beings to clot is usually about five minutes.人的血液凝固所花的時間一般為五分鐘左右。The chemical reaction taking place in the mouth is accomplished by means of saliva.口腔中發生的化學反應是借助唾液完成的。B:被主語的同位語分隔。The lymph nodes, glandlike structure, are situated at certain strategic points in the course of the lymph vessels.淋巴結是腺樣結構,位于淋巴管通路的某些要害點。Vitamin D, the sunlight vitamin, was among the first to be discovered.維生素D,即日光維生素,是最先發現的維生素之一。C:被狀語或插入語分隔。For example: The tears, after flowing over the surface of the eye, are chained from its inner angle into the nose by two small rubes-the lachrymal ducts.淚水在流過眼睛表面后,在內眥處由兩根小管(鼻淚管)排到鼻腔。The skin, when it is intact, capably resists myriads of bacteria that live on it.皮膚當它完整無損時,能夠抵御在它上面生成的無數細菌。This medicine, it is said, has no untoward effects.這種藥據說沒有不良作用。

        2.2   系表之間的分隔,翻譯時位置保持不變。  A:被狀語、插入語分隔。For example: Almost all are to some extent bound to plasma proteins.幾乎所有的藥物都不同程度地與血漿蛋白質結合。Amino acids are, as the name suggests, compounds with the properties of both acids and amines.如其名稱所提示的那樣,氨基酸是具有酸和氨基性質的化合物。B:系動詞與另一謂語共用一對象作表語而被分隔。For example: Rheumatic fever is, or will ultimately change into, a serious disease.風濕熱是或最終會變成一種嚴重的疾患。

        3.    謂語和賓語之間的分隔,翻譯時按英文詞序進行

        3.1   被狀語、插入語等分隔  For example: Only may calculate in the conventional manner the amount of sodium bicarbonate needed to correct the metabolic acidosis.我們可以用常規方法計算出糾正代謝性酸中毒所需要的碳酸氫鈉量。This medicine cant remove, of course, the cause of the disease, but it will ease to a certain degree the intolerable pain.這種藥當然不能除去病,但能在一定程度上減輕難以忍受的疼痛。

        3.2   被賓語補語分隔  賓語過長,其補語過短,常將賓語放在補語后而與謂語分隔。For example: It will make possible synthetic production of the elements.它將使元素的人工合成生產成為可能。They saw repairing the medical instrument two medical workers who designed it.他們看到兩位醫務工作者在修理他們設計的那臺醫療儀器。

        3.3   “及物動詞+介詞短語”結構中,賓語較長,置于介詞短語之后而與謂語分隔。  For example: We ought to take into consideration the plan that he suggested.我們應該考慮他所提出的計劃。

        4.    同位語與本位語之間的分隔

        4.1   本位語的后置定語分隔  All the facts point to idea persuasively put forward by Casperssen, that the nucleic acid is concerned with protein synthesis.所有事實都說明Casperssen所提出的這個令人信服的想法,即核酸與蛋白合成有關。

        4.2   本位語為主語時,其同位語太長,常將謂語前置而把同位語分隔開來。這樣使句子結構勻稱,避免了頭重腳輕。翻譯時,一般采用前置定語方式進行翻譯。For example: The hypothesisis advanced that epithelium lining the fallopian tube, secretes an enzyme which has the ability to degrade glycogen or glucose.可以提出這樣的假說,即輸卵管內面的上皮可以分泌具有分解糖原或葡萄糖能力的酶。(如果主語的后置定語中的同位語較長,常用倒裝語序把被謂語分隔開)。For example: In any one of a host of diverse disorders might be the cause: pulmonary tuberculosis, cancer, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis even worry.在許許多多不同的疾病中任何一種都可能是其原因,如肺結核,腫瘤、糖尿病、甲狀腺毒癥,甚至憂慮也可以成為其原因。

        5.    補語與被補對象之間的分隔

        5.1   賓語和賓語補語常被賓語的后位定語或補語的前位修飾語分隔。We call atoms of the same element that have different atomic weights isotopes.我們把具有不同原子量的同一種元素的原子叫做同位素。

        5.2   賓語和主語補語常被謂語或其他成分分隔,翻譯時位置不變。For example: Toxemia of pregnancy is classified according to it severity as mild, moderate or severe.妊娠毒血癥按發病的嚴重程度可分為輕度的,中度的或重度的。This common disease has long been regarded by some people in China and other countries asincurable.這種常見病長期以來一直被國內外的一些人認為是“不治之癥”。

        6.    受定語與后位定語之間的分隔

        6.1   定語與后位定語較長,放在較短的謂語之后而造成成分分隔。須按中文的習慣表達方式來表達。For example: Some diseases are known the symptoms of which are usually indefinite in the early stages.已知有些疾病,其癥狀在早期通常不明顯。No other drug is available at present that can produce the same therapentic effect with less risk.現在還沒有別的能夠產生相同療效而危險性又較小的藥物。

        6.2   there引導句中,狀語通常位于主語之后。若主語有后位定語,則被該狀語分隔。按中文的習慣來表達。For example: There are more and more medical workers in foreign countries interested in acupuncture nowadays.當今在國外,對針灸感興趣的醫務工作者越來越多。There were a few people in the hospital waiting for physical examination.醫院里有些人在等待體檢。

        6.3   受定語有兩個以上的后位定語時,一個緊跟其后,其余的則逐一被分隔。一般說來,較短的放在前面,較長的放在后面。Digestion consists in the necessary chemical changes in the food which must occur before it can be absorbed.消化在于食物能夠被吸收之前的必要的化學變化。The fetus swims within a sac of water known as the amniotic membrane.胎兒浮在羊水里。

        6.4   受定語和定語被插入語、狀語、同位語等分隔,按中文習慣翻譯。No pure sulfuric acid, if applied to the skin, but produces bad burns.沒有濃硫酸灑在皮膚上而不產生嚴重燒傷的。This is the site, I suppose, where a new hospital will be built.我看,就會在這個場地新建一所醫院。

       

    在醫學英語的翻譯過程中,只要譯者抓住了“現象”,就會找到解決問題本質的途徑。因此,我們主張譯者要深入分析原文句子結構,學習和掌握原文的相關知識,抓住原文意義之后,大膽地甩開原文的表達形式,用地道的專業術語進行翻譯,這樣就可能達到“出神如化”的境地。

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